Learning > Health

Understanding Dementia

Alzheimer's Disease Association

View Original Source


Facebook Email

What is dementia?

Dementia is an illness which affects the brain, causing the brain cells to die at a faster rate than normal. It is NOTnormal ageing. As a result, the mental abilities of the person with dementia declines. This leads to failing memory, deterioration of intellectual function and personality changes.


Who are affected? 

It affects mainly elderly people. In Singapore, the prevalence rate of people with dementia aged 65 years and above is about 6.2%.


Types of dementia

There are two main types of dementia : Alzheimer's disease and Multi-infarct dementia.

In Alzheimer's disease, the onset of symptoms and the progression of the illness is gradual. Although the cause is still unknown, present research suggests that there is a familial tendency and certain chemicals in the brain are lacking. As yet, there is no known medical cure for the disease.

Multi-infarct dementia results from a series of strokes in the brain.


What are the symptoms of dementia?

Generally, there are three stages which mark the onset and progression of the disease.


Early stage: Mild dementia

The individual appears forgetful or occasionally repeats himself. Sometimes they behave oddly and become withdrawn, lethargic or agitated. Planning of day-to-day activities becomes difficult.


Middle stage: Moderate dementia

In this stage, the changes become more noticeable. The memory lapses are more obvious. Behaviour becomes problematic and may interfere with normal day-to-day activities. Some examples of behaviour which may be symptomatic of moderate dementia are:

  • Wandering and getting lost
  • Repeating words
  • Neglecting personal hygiene
  • Losing track of time and events
  • Forgetting the names of common objects and familiar people
  • Irritability and agitation


Last stage: Severe dementia

The individual is unable to recognise family members and will need help in personal care such as bathing, going to the bathroom, dressing and eating. Their speech may be difficult to understand and they may not comprehend what is being said to them.


Below is a checklist of symptoms:

  • problem with recent memory
  • misplacing things
  • difficulty performing familiar tasks
  • problems with language
  • disorientation of place and time
  • poor or decreased judgement
  • problems with abstract thinking
  • changes in mood or behaviour
  • changes in personality
  • loss of initiative

Please consult your family doctor for a referral to be made.


What can be done?

If you have a relative with memory problems:

  1. He/she should see the doctor for an assessment and diagnosis.
  2. You will need help in understanding the illness. Your doctor can put you in touch with people who can help.
  3. You will need support. Caring for people with dementia is challenging and can be exhausting both physically and emotionally. Learn to talk about your problems. Make sure that you get enough rest. Take care of your own physical and mental well-being.
  4. Group support is important. Meet with others who are also caring for people with dementia. Sharing provides mutual support for caregivers.
  5. For other types of challenging behaviour, specific advice may be needed.


Here are some ways of coping with forgetfulness:

  1. Remind people with dementia constantly of reality around them, for example, the day, date, month, year, time of day, place and the names of people around them.
  2. Keep to a regular routine.
  3. Use memory aids like diaries, memo boards, signs, clocks, calendars, etc.


If you require further information or assistance, please call the Dementia Helpline 6377 0700

The views, material and information presented by any third party are strictly the views of such third party. Without prejudice to any third party content or materials whatsoever are provided for information purposes and convenience only. Council For The Third Age shall not be responsible or liable for any loss or damage whatsoever arising directly or indirectly howsoever in connection with or as a result of any person accessing or acting on any information contained in such content or materials. The presentation of such information by third parties on this Council For The Third Age website does not imply and shall not be construed as any representation, warranty, endorsement or verification by Council For The Third Age in respect of such content or materials.